There are the following few types of data recovery.
“Data recovery“, referring either to any kind of recovery, or to the extraction of files from a filesystem that does not normally mount.
RAID recovery, which reconstructs RAID configuration. RAID recovery does not know about files, folders, filesystems, or partitions.
Partition recovery, seeking to re-create the partition table in order to have accidentally deleted partitions reappear as they were.
Unlike all other data recovery types we discuss here, the partition recovery really does change the content of the hard drive. The partition recovery should not be mixed with
a recovery partition, a feature found mostly on laptops.
Photo recovery, which aims to extract the digital images files contained on any storage. The photo recovery does not rely upon the filesystem, looking at data headers.
Raw recovery, the broader version of the photo recovery method, which does not limit the recovery to just the digital photo files. In raw recovery, all possible file headers are identified and all possible files recovered.
Photo and raw recovery differ from other recovery types in that the file names and folders are lost during the recovery. One should keep in mind that file fragmentation is ignored in raw (and photo) recovery, which can sometimes lead to recovered files being damaged. The raw recovery should not be mixed with a raw file system recovery, a kind of a data loss event.